Instrument and automation engineers' handbook. Volume I, Measurement and safety-CRC Press (2017) (1)

Instrument and automation engineers' handbook. Volume I, Measurement and...

(Parte 1 de 11)

Measurement and Safety

Measurement and Safety

BÉLA G. LIPTÁK, Editor-in-Chief KRISZTA VENCZEL, Volume Editor

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742

© 2017 by Bela G. Liptak CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

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Printed on acid-free paper Version Date: 20160725

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Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data

Names: Liptâak, Bâela G., editor. Title: Instrument and automation engineers’ handbook : measurement and safety / editor, Bela Liptak. Other titles: Instrument engineers’ handbook. Description: Fifth edition. | Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, 2017. | Revision of: Instrument engineers’ handbook. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016025938 | ISBN 9781498727648 (hard back : alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Process control--Handbooks, manuals, etc. | Measuring instruments--Handbooks, manuals, etc. | Automatic control--Handbooks, manuals, etc. | Plant engineering--Safety measures--Handbooks, manuals, etc. Classification: LCC TS156.8 .I56 2017 | DDC 658.2/8--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016025938

Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

This handbook is dedicated to the next generation of automation engineers working in the fields of measurement, control, and safety. I hope that learning from these pages will increase their professional standing around the world and that our knowledge accumulated during the last half century will speed the coming of the age of full automation. I also hope that what we have learned in optimizing industrial processes will be used to improve the understanding of all processes and that this knowledge will also help in overcoming our environmental ills and will smooth the conversion of our lifestyle into a sustainable, safe, and clean one.

Béla G. Lipták vii

C o n t e n t s

Introduction xi Contributors xi

1 General Considerations1

1.1 Accuracy and Rangeability 4 1.2 Binary Logic Diagrams 15 1.3 Calibration 27 1.4 Configuring Intelligent Field Devices 35 1.5 Evaluation of Instrument Quality 56 1.6 Instrument Installation 65 1.7 Redundant and Voting Systems 84 1.8 Soft Sensors 107 1.9 Terminology for Automation and Testing 119 1.10 Uncertainty: Estimation, Propagation, and Reporting 151

2 Flow Measurement159

2.1 Flowmeter Selection 167 2.2 Applications: Abrasive, Corrosive, Slurry 205 2.3 Applications: Bidirectional Flowmeters 211 2.4 Applications: Multiphase and Subsea Flowmeters 221 2.5 Applications: Multiphase Hydrocarbon Metering 235 2.6 Calibration and Maintenance 246 2.7 Installation 261 2.8 Anemometers 270 2.9 BTU Flow Measurement: Fuel Gas 279 2.10 BTU Flow Measurement: Liquids 284 2.1 Cross-Correlation Flowmetering 290 2.12 Elbow Flowmeters 299 2.13 Flow Switches 306 2.14 Laminar Flowmeters 317 2.15 Magnetic Flowmeters 326 2.16 Mass Flowmeters: Coriolis 346 2.17 Mass Flowmeters: Indirect and Turbine 364 2.18 Mass Flowmeters: Thermal 371 2.19 Metering Pumps 384 viii Contents

2.20 Oil-Custody Transfer 394 2.21 Orifices 412 2.2 Paddle Flow Switches 437 2.23 Pitot and Area-Averaging Tubes 445 2.24 Positive-Displacement Gas Meters 460 2.25 Positive-Displacement Liquid Meters and Provers 469 2.26 Purge Flow Regulators 482 2.27 Segmental Wedge Flowmeter 486 2.28 Sight Flow Indicators 492 2.29 Solids Flowmeter and Feeder 500 2.30 Target Meters 525 2.31 Turbine and Other Rotary Element Flowmeters 531 2.32 Ultrasonic Flowmeters 550 2.3 Variable Area, Gap, and Vane Flowmeters 567 2.34 Venturi, Proprietary Tubes, and Flow Nozzles 578 2.35 Vortex and Fluidic Flowmeters 593 2.36 V-Shaped Cone Flow Elements 606 2.37 Weirs and Flumes for Open Channels 612

3 Level Measurement621

3.1 Selection of Level Detectors 627 3.2 Installation Considerations 648 3.3 Applications: Interface, Foam, Boiling Services 653 3.4 Applications: Non-Contacting, Non-Penetrating 660 3.5 Applications: Tank Gauges for Oil and Gas 665 3.6 Applications: Water Level Measurement in Nuclear Reactors 680 3.7 Bubblers 686 3.8 Capacitance and Radio Frequency (RF) Admittance 697 3.9 Conductivity and Field-Effect Level Switches 715 3.10 Diaphragm Level Detectors 720 3.1 Differential Pressure Level Detectors 727 3.12 Displacer Type Level Detectors 748 3.13 Float Level Devices 762 3.14 Laser Level Sensors 773 3.15 Level Gauges, Including Magnetic 782 3.16 Magnetostrictive Level Transmitters 798 3.17 Microwave Level Switches 804 3.18 Optical and IR Level Switches 811 3.19 Radar: Contact Level Sensors (TDR, GWR, and PDS) 816 3.20 Radar: Non-Contacting Level Sensors 825 3.21 Radiation Level Sensors 835 3.2 Resistance Tapes 855 3.23 Rotary Paddle Switches (Solids Level Detector) 863 3.24 Tank Farm Gauges for Liquids and Solids 868 3.25 Thermal Dispersion Level Sensors 880 3.26 Ultrasonic Level Detectors 884 3.27 Vibrating Level Switches 897

4 temperature Measurement901

4.1 Selection of Temperature Sensors 905 4.2 Applications: Cryogenic Temperature Measurement 936 4.3 Applications: High Temperature 942 4.4 Bimetallic Thermometers 965 4.5 Calibrators and Simulators 971

Contents ix

4.6 Cones, Crayons, Labels, Paints, and Pellets 977 4.7 Filled-Bulb and Glass-Stem Thermometers 983 4.8 Integrated Circuitry (IC), Transistors and Diodes 997 4.9 Miscellaneous Temperature Sensors 1003 4.10 Optical Fiber Thermometers (OFT) 1012 4.1 Radiation Pyrometers: Infrared (IR), Total, and Optical 1022 4.12 Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) 1040 4.13 Temperature Switches and Thermostats 1055 4.14 Thermistors 1067 4.15 Thermocouples 1078 4.16 Thermowells 1108 4.17 Ultrasonic Thermometers 1125

5 Pressure Measurement1131

5.1 Selection of Pressure Detectors 1134 5.2 Accessories (Seals, Snubbers, Calibrators, Manifolds) 1145 5.3 Bellows Elements and Barometers 1159 5.4 Bourdon and Helical Pressure Sensors 16 5.5 Diaphragm or Capsule Elements 1171 5.6 Differential Pressure Instruments 1178 5.7 Electronic Pressure Sensors 1192 5.8 High-Pressure Sensors 1208 5.9 Manometers 1214 5.10 Pneumatic Repeaters and Boosters 1226 5.1 Pressure and Differential Pressure (D/P) Switches 1232 5.12 Pressure Gauges 1242 5.13 Pressure Scanners 1252 5.14 Vacuum Sensors 1259

6 Density Measurement1275

6.1 Selection of Density Detectors 1278 6.2 Displacement and Float-Type Densitometers 1293 6.3 Gas Densitometers 1301 6.4 Hydrometers 1313 6.5 Hydrostatic Densitometers 1317 6.6 Oscillating Densitometers (Coriolis) 1326 6.7 Radiation Densitometers 1333 6.8 Ultrasonic Sludge Slurry Densitometers 1343 6.9 Vibrating Densitometers 1347 6.10 Weighing Densitometers 1356

7 Miscellaneous sensors1361

7.1 Building Optimization Sensors 1367 7.2 Electric Energy Management: Demand Shedding 1383 7.3 Electric Meters 1389 7.4 Machine Vision Technology 1406 7.5 Metal Detectors 1413 7.6 Noise Sensors and Nondestructive Testing 1419 7.7 Nuclear Reactor Measurements 1429 7.8 Pipe Integrity Gauges (PIGs) 1443 7.9 Position Measurement, Linear and Angular 1458 7.10 Proximity Sensors and Limit Switches 1471 7.1 Solar Collector Positioning 1484 x Contents

7.12 Tachometers and Angular Speed Detectors 1490 7.13 Thickness and Dimension Measurement 1499 7.14 Torque and Force Measurement 1508 7.15 Transportation Related Sensors 1520 7.16 Vibration, Shock, and Acceleration 1537 7.17 Visual Inspection Tools, Borescopes 1556 7.18 Weather Stations 1562 7.19 Weight Detectors Load Cells 1574 7.20 Weighing Systems 1606

8 safety sensors1627

8.1 Annunciators and Alarms Management 1632 8.2 Electrical and Intrinsic Safety 1660 8.3 Excess Flow and Regular Check Valves 1677 8.4 Explosion Proofing of Instrumentation 1685 8.5 Explosion Suppression and Deluge Systems 1712 8.6 Flame Arrestor, Conservation and Emergency Vents 1722 8.7 Flame, Fire, and Smoke Detectors 1733 8.8 Nuclear Accidents 1743 8.9 Nuclear Radiation Detectors 1765 8.10 Oil Industry Accidents 1779 8.1 Relief Valves: Determination of Required Capacity 1802 8.12 Relief Valves: Sizing, Specification, and Installation 1825 8.13 Rupture Discs 1858

9 transmitters1873

9.1 Transmitters: Electronic 1875 9.2 Transmitters: Fiber-Optic 1894 9.3 Transmitters: Pneumatic 1907 9.4 Transmitters: Smart, Multivariable 1922 9.5 Transmitters: Wireless 1933

Appendix1941

A.1 Definitions 1943 A.2 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols 1990 A.3 Organizations 2010 A.4 Flowsheet and Functional Diagrams Symbols 2013 A.5 Conversion among Engineering Units 2060 A.6 Chemical Resistance of Materials 2097 A.7 Composition and Properties of Metallic and Other Materials 2120 A.8 Steam and Water Tables 2127 A.9 Friction Loss in Pipes 2135 A.10 Tank Volumes 2141

I n t r o D u C t I o n

ArtIFICIAL InteLLIGenCe

I am breaking the traditions of scientific books by writing in these paragraphs about issues that go beyond science. The tradition of engineering handbooks is to present material that we are fairly sure of and here, when I write about artificial and super intelligence, I am on uncharted territory.

Automation opened a new chapter in human evolution, because while it started as just another tool to make our lives easier, with the development of robots, instant communication, and artificial intelligence, it is becoming much more. This can be a great achievement, but it can also be the slippery slope on our road of progress, one that we should not take, because we could be risking human civilization.

It seems to me that throughout the ages, man was not only struggling for survival, but was also struggling to understand the universe and its purpose. Our ancestors traveled on two roads. One was spiritual, and the other was scientific. Those on the spiritual road assumed that understanding the intent of the creator is beyond the abilities of humans, while the ones on the road of science decided to try to understand it anyway! Scientists focused on learning the laws that are guiding the universe and thereby learning something about its creator.

The ones traveling on this second road included Aristotle,

Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Einstein and now people like Hawking. It matters little if Galileo discovered gravity, because an apple fell on his head or because he climbed the leaning tower of Pizza and noticed that bodies of different weights increased their velocity at the same rate. It matters little how the discovery of relativity, black holes, or the continuous expansion of the universe was achieved. What matters is our proving that we are capable of understanding the laws that give order to and govern the universe and we still keep learning more and more about them.

If we see a painting, we do not need any further proof to know that there was a painter who created it. When we observe the universe, we know that it too had a creator. But just as we have to study the painting more, until it reveals something about the painter, we have to study the universe, to even begin to understand its creator. Over the millennia, we have gained a bit of this understanding, but over this same period, some have also developed the view that the spiritual and scientific roads lead to different intellectual destinations, that they do not merge, but contradict each other.

Well, it seems we were wrong! Today’s science has proven, that time was created at the same time when space and matter was, that neither time, nor space existed before that. Scientists call this event the “big bang” and just as Newton’s apple and Einstein’s relativity represented a quantum jump in our understanding of the universe, the “big bang” adds to it. This addition is important, because it proves that the spiritual and scientific roads can merge.

Automation, robots, and AI

So does all this have anything to do with automation? Well, automation opened a new age for mankind. First, it was just a tool that served our comfort as it substituted for our muscles and later for the routine functions of our brain. But today we are beginning to realize that we have “created” something much more (Figure I.1). When we designed the first gadgets that made industry safer and more efficient, we did not realize where this will lead. Next we designed “smart” instruments just so that we will not need to keep checking if they are okay, because they could do it themselves through “self-diagnosis.” This road naturally led to robots and today, we are beginning to realize that these “human creations” are much more than “mechanical slaves”!

Fig. i.1 Our creation the robot, which might get smarter than its creator. (Courtesy of Can Stock Photo.) xii Introduction

Robots can not only do things that we hate to do, because they are boring, they can not only do them better and faster, but they can also go to places which are unhospitable for us, such as Mars or the war zones. And now, we are beginning to realize that they can also change our life style! Today, when our robots can not only build our cars, but can also drive them, we begin to ask, does our “creation” make “the creator” unnecessary. And by this, I do not mean only that they create unemployment!

When we in the automation profession created these machines of unlimited memory and speed to analyze data and execute logic, we have created a machine that could have “superhuman intelligence.” It seems to me that artificial intelligence (AI) can not only build and drive cars, but eventually can design them and can make them better. In the same token, they can also design better robots. And when we get to that point, when they can improve their own software, they can become more intelligent than humans.

Naturally, we have just started on this slippery slope! We are just beginning to sink to become “keyboard clickers” and intellectual garbage consumers! But what is worst, we have no idea where this road leads us or the next generations? Yet we know that robots can not only spread fertilizer, but they can also spread say, the Abola virus and to their present “AI brain,” it is the same.

(Parte 1 de 11)

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