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ASME BPVC.X-2015

Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels

2015ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

An International Code

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee on Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels

2015 ASME Boiler &

Pressure Vessel Code 2015 Edition July 1, 2015

Two Park Avenue • New York, NY • 10016 USA

Date of Issuance: July 1, 2015

This international code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for

American National Standards and it is an American National Standard. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.

ASME does not “approve,”“ rate,” or “endorse” any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable letters patent, nor assume any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility.

Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard.

ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established ASME procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals. The endnotes and preamble in this document (if any) are part of this American National Standard.

ASME collective membership mark

Certification Mark

The above ASME symbol is registered in the U.S. Patent Office. “ASME” is the trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 56-3934 Printed in the United States of America

Adopted by the Council of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1914; latest edition 2015.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990

Copyright © 2015 by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS All rights reserved

List of Sectionsxi
Forewordxiii
Statement of Policy on the Use of the Certification Mark and Code Authorization in Advertisingxv
Statement of Policy on the Use of ASME Marking to Identify Manufactured Itemsxv
Submittal of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committeesxvi
Personnelxviii
Introductionxxxv
Summary of Changesxxxix
List of Changes in Record Number Orderxl
Cross-Referencing and Stylistic Changes in the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codexli
Part RG General Requirements1
Article RG-1 Scope and Jurisdiction1
RG-100 Scope1
RG-110 Application Limitations1
RG-120 Jurisdiction of Section X2
Article RG-2 Organization3
RG-200 Organization of This Section3
Article RG-3 Responsibilities and Duties4
RG-300 Responsibilities and Duties4
RG-310 User’s Responsibilities — Design Specification4
RG-320 Fabricator’s Responsibilities4
RG-330 Inspector’s Duties6
Article RG-4 Fabrication Methods7
RG-400 Fabrication Methods7
Part RM Material Requirements8
Article RM-1 General Requirements8
RM-100 Laminate Materials8
RM-110 Fiber System8
RM-120 Resin System8
Class I Vessel10
RM-150 Mechanical Properties of Lamina for Class I Vessels10
Article RM-2 Miscellaneous Pressure Parts1
RM-200 General Requirements1
RM-210 Miscellaneous Metallic Parts1
Part RD Design Requirements12
Article RD-1 General12
RD-100 Scope12
RD-110 Definitions12
RD-120 Loadings13
RD-130 Design Restrictions14
RD-140 Design Allowances for Degradation14
RD-150 Methods of Fabrication in Combination14

TABLE OF CONTENTS RM-140 Use of Two or More Materials Specifications or Processes in Fabricating a i

Article RD-2 Shells of Revolution Under Internal Pressure15
RD-200 General15
Article RD-3 Shells of Revolution Under External Pressure16
RD-300 General16
RD-310 Qualification of Vessels for External Pressure Service16
Article RD-4 Secondary Bonding17
RD-400 Design of Secondary Bonded Joints17
Article RD-5 Openings and Their Reinforcement18
RD-500 General18
RD-510 Qualification18
RD-520 Restrictions for Class I Vessels18
Article RD-6 Nozzles and Other Connections19
RD-600 General19
RD-610 Qualifications19
RD-620 Integral Flanged Nozzles for Class I Vessels19
Article RD-7 Bolted Connections27
RD-700 Flat Heads, Covers, and Blind Flanges27
RD-710 Bolted Flanged Connections27
Flanges28
Flanges28
Article RD-8 Quick‐Actuating Closures (for Class I Vessels Only)29
RD-800 General Design Requirements29
Article RD-9 Attachments and Supports30
RD-900 General30
RD-910 Qualification30
Article RD-10 Access and Inspection Openings31
RD-1000 General Requirements31
RD-1010 Equipment of Vessels Requiring Access or Inspection Openings31
RD-1020 Size of Manhole Openings for Class I Vessels31
RD-1030 Size of Manhole Openings for Class I Vessels31
RD-1040 Minimum Gasket Bearing Widths for Manhole Cover Plates32
RD-1050 Threaded Openings in Class I Vessels32
RD-1060 Threaded Openings in Class I Vessels32
Article RD-1 Mandatory Design Rules for Class I Vessels3
RD-10 General3
RD-1110 Design Basis3
RD-1120 Design Limitations3
RD-1130 Design Acceptability3
RD-1140 Loadings3
RD-1150 Vessel Parts Subject to Design Analysis3
RD-1160 Laminate Composition3
RD-1170 Design Rules — Method A35
RD-1180 Discontinuity Analysis — Method B45
Article RD-12 Laminate Stiffness Coefficients53
RD-1200 Laminate Stiffness Coefficients53
RD-1210 Stiffness Coefficients for Design by Method B Rules53
RD-1220 Nomenclature53
RD-1230 Lamina Reduced Stiffness5

RD-730 Welded or Brazed Connections to Metal Flat Heads, Covers, or Blind iv

RD-1250 Procedure for Calculating the Stiffness Coefficients57
Part RF Fabrication Requirements58
Article RF-1 General Requirements58
RF-100 Scope58
RF-110 Procedure Specifications58
Vessels Only)59
RF-200 Fiber Content59
RF-210 Form of Fiber Reinforcement59
RF-220 Molds59
RF-230 Liners60
RF-240 Openings in Vessels60
RF-250 Molded‐in Fittings60

Article RF-2 Special Fabrication Requirements for Bag‐Molding Process (for Class I

Class I Vessels Only)61
RF-300 Fiber Content61
RF-310 Form of Reinforcement61
RF-320 Mandrels61
RF-330 Liners61
RF-340 Openings in Vessels61

Article RF-3 Special Fabrication Requirements for Centrifugal‐Casting Process (for

(Classes I and I)62
RF-400 Fiber Content62
RF-410 Form of Reinforcement62
RF-420 Mandrels62
RF-430 Liners63
RF-440 Openings in Vessels63

Article RF-4 Special Fabrication Requirements for Filament‐Winding Process

(Classes I and I)64
RF-500 Fiber Content64
RF-510 Form of Fiber Reinforcement64
RF-520 Molds64
RF-530 Liners64
RF-540 Openings in Vessels65

Article RF-5 Special Fabrication Requirements for Contact‐Molding Process

Only)6
RF-600 Content6
RF-610 Form of Fiber Reinforcement6
RF-620 Molds67
RF-630 Openings in Heads67
Article RF-7 Special Fabrication Requirements for Joining Components68
RF-700 Procedure Specifications and Qualifications68
Part RQ Qualification Requirements69
Article RQ-1 Scope69
RQ-100 Responsibility for Qualification69
RQ-110 Maintenance of Procedure Specification and Qualification Records69
RQ-120 Procedure Specification Qualification Forms69
RQ-140 Means for Qualifying Class I Vessel Design and Fabrication70

Article RF-6 Special Fabrication Requirements for Matched Molded Heads (Used for Closures for Centrifugally Cast Vessels — for Class I Vessels RQ-130 Means to Be Used in Qualifying Class I Designs and Fabricating Procedures 70 v

I Vessels)72
RQ-200 Essential Variables72

Article RQ-2 Special Requirements for Bag‐Molding Procedure Qualification (Class

(Class I Vessels)73
RQ-300 Essential Variables73

Article RQ-3 Special Requirements for Centrifugal‐Casting Procedure Qualification

(Class I Vessels)74
RQ-400 Essential Variables74

Article RQ-4 Special Requirements for Filament‐Winding Procedure Qualification

(Class I Vessels)75
RQ-500 Essential Variables75
Article RQ-6 Special Requirements for Class I Vessels76
RQ-600 Essential Design Variables76
Part R Pressure Relief Devices7
Article R-1 General Requirements7
R-100 Protection Against Overpressure7
R-110 Types of Overpressure Protection7
R-120 Set Pressure7
R-130 Permissible Overpressures7
Article R-2 Provisions in Vessels for Installation of Pressure Relief Devices79
R-200 Number, Size, and Location of Connections79
R-210 Stop Valves Between the Vessel and Pressure Relief Device79
R-220 Discharge Lines From Pressure Relief Devices79
Part RT Rules Governing Testing80
Article RT-1 Testing Requirements80
RT-100 Scope80
RT-110 Fabricator’s Responsibility80
RT-120 Inspector’s Duties80

Article RQ-5 Special Requirements for Contact‐Molding Procedure Qualification

Vessels81
RT-200 General81
RT-210 Qualification Checks and Examinations81
RT-220 Qualification Tests82

Article RT-2 Design and Procedure Qualification Test Requirements for Class I

sels84
RT-300 General84
RT-310 Frequency of Cyclic Pressure and Qualification Pressure Tests84
RT-320 Frequency of Determination of Weight of Resin and Fiber84
RT-330 Frequency of Volumetric Expansion Tests84
RT-340 Frequency of Thickness Checks84
Article RT-4 Production Test Requirements for Class I Vessels85
RT-400 General85
RT-410 Visual Examination85
RT-420 Thickness Check86
RT-430 Vessel Weight86
RT-440 Barcol Hardness Test86
RT-450 Hydrostatic Leakage Test86
RT-460 Conditions Under Which Pneumatic Leakage Test May Be Used86

Article RT-3 Quality Control Test and Examination Requirements for Class I Vesvi

Vessels8
RT-500 Provision of Vents at High Points8
RT-510 Test Gages8
RT-520 Calibration of Acoustic Emission Equipment8
Article RT-6 Acceptance Test Procedure for Class I Vessels89
RT-600 General89
RT-610 Acceptance Checks and Examinations89
RT-620 Acceptance Tests89
RT-630 Penetrant Examination90

Article RT-5 Hydrostatic Testing Procedures and Equipment for Class I and Class I

I Vessels91
RT-700 Required Mechanical Properties of the Lamina91
Article RT-8 Test Methods for Determining Damage‐Based Design Criterion93
RT-800 Scope93
RT-810 Referenced Documents93
RT-820 Apparatus, Loading Procedure, and Data Analysis93
Part RI Inspection Requirements94
Article RI-1 General94
RI-100 Scope94
RI-110 Qualification of Inspectors94
RI-120 Access for Inspector94
RI-130 Inspector’s Duties94
RI-140 Inspection of Material95
RI-150 Inspection During Fabrication95
RI-160 Alternative Inspection for Multiple, Duplicate Fabrication95
Article RI-2 Special Inspection Requirements for Bag Molding (Class I Vessels)96
RI-200 Check of Bag‐Molding Procedure Specification Qualification96
RI-210 Visual Inspection96

Article RT-7 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Lamina for Use With Class

sels)97
RI-300 Check of Centrifugal‐Casting Procedure Specification Qualification97
RI-310 Visual Inspection97
Article RI-4 Special Inspection Requirements for Filament Winding98
RI-400 Check of Filament‐Winding Procedure Specification Qualification98
RI-410 Visual Inspection98
Article RI-5 Special Inspection Requirements for Contact Molding9
RI-500 Check of Contact‐Molding Procedure Specification Qualification9
RI-510 Visual Inspection9
Part RS Marking, Stamping, and Reports100
Article RS-1 Contents, Methods, and Means of Marking100
RS-100 Required Marking for Vessels100
RS-110 Application of Stamp to Vessel100
RS-120 Part Marking101
RS-130 Nameplate101
Article RS-2 Use of Certification Mark Stamp102
RS-200 Certification Mark Stamp Bearing Official Mark102
Article RS-3 Report Forms103
RS-300 Fabricator’s Data Reports103

Article RI-3 Special Inspection Requirements for Centrifugal Casting (Class I Vesvii

Mandatory Appendix 2 Capacity Conversions for Safety Valves106
Mandatory Appendix 4 Glossary of Terms Related to Fiber‐Reinforced Plastics109
Mandatory Appendix 5 Specific Gravity of Liquid Resins118
Mandatory Appendix 6 Structural Laminate Visual Acceptance Criteria119
Mandatory Appendix 7 Standard Units for Use in Equations124
vice125

Mandatory Appendix 8 Class I Vessels With Liners for Gaseous Hydrogen in Stationary Ser-

Pressure Vessels146
Nonmandatory Appendix A Suggested Methods of Preliminary Design for Class I Vessels148
Nonmandatory Appendix AB Installation and Operation156
Nonmandatory Appendix AC Discontinuity Stresses for Class I, Method B Vessels158
Nonmandatory Appendix AD Laminate Theory176
Nonmandatory Appendix AF Examples for Design Rules for Class I Vessels191

Mandatory Appendix 9 Establishing Governing Code Editions, Addenda, and Cases for FRP

Figure AG-1)194

Nonmandatory Appendix AG Guide to Information Appearing on Certificate of Authorization (See

and Pressure Vessel Code196

Nonmandatory Appendix AH Guidance for the Use of U.S. Customary and SI Units in the ASME Boiler

sure199
Nonmandatory Appendix AJ Forms Required by Section X203

Nonmandatory Appendix AI Rigorous NASA SP‐8007 Solution for Lateral and Longitudinal Pres-

RD-620.3 Flange Tolerances23
RD-620.4(a) Plate‐Type Gussets24
RD-620.4(b) Typical Cone‐Type Gusset24
RD-620.5 Flush Nozzle Installation25
RD-620.6 Penetrating Nozzle Installation26
RD-700.1 Acceptable Types of Flat Heads for Class I Vessels27
RD-1120.1 Design Limitations for Class I Vessels34
RD-1174.2 Dimensions of Reinforcing Pad and Nozzle Overlays38
RD-1174.3 Stress Concentration Factors for a Circular Hole in a Pressurized Cylindrical Shell40
RD-1175.2 Head/Shell or Shell/Shell Overlay Dimensions42
RD-1176.1 Design of Full‐Face Nozzle Flanges4
RD-1176.2 Values of V46
RD-1176.3 Values of F47
RD-1176.4 Values of f48
RD-1176.5 Values of T, Z, Y, and U49
RD-1220.1 Moment Resultants54
RD-1220.2 In‐Plane Force Resultants54
RD-1220.3 Coordinate Systems5
RD-1250.1 Geometry of an N‐Layered Laminate57
RF-210.1 Fiber Side Wall Lay‐up for Bag Molding59
RF-210.2 Head or End Preform for Cylindrical Vessel60
RF-610.1 Fiber Preform and Insert for Head for Centrifugally Cast Vessel6
RF-610.2 Fiber Head or End Preformed Inserts for Centrifugally Cast Vessel Heads67

FIGURES viii

dard100
RS-132.1 Form of Stamping and Marking101
2-100.1 Constant C for Gas or Vapor Related to Ratio of Specific Heats107
2-100.1M Constant C for Gas or Vapor Related to Ratio of Specific Heats107
8-700.5.1.1-1 Pendulum Impact Test139
A-522.1 Saddle‐Type Supports154
A-523.1 Ring or Flange Support154
A-524.1 Metal Attachment in Vessel End155
A-524.2 Metal Attachments in Thickened Ends155
AC-100.1158
AC-100.2158
AC-100.3159
AC-100.4160
AC-100.5160
AC-200 Symbols and Sign Convention164
AC-310169
AC-410172
AC-421173
AC-422173
AC-430173
AC-431174
AD-201177
AD-202 Reference Coordinates177
AD-500178
AD-503182
AD-505182
AD-510 Failure Envelopes — Example Laminate in Strain Space188
AG-1 Sample Certificate of Authorization195
Tensile Tests213

RS-100.1 Official Certification Mark to Denote the American Society of Mechanical Engineers’ Stan- Q-115.1 Schematic Views of Permissible Joint Designs for Adhesive‐Bonded Cylinder Joints for

1.1 Referenced Standards in This Sectionxxxvi
RM-120.1 Resin Systems Required Certification by Resin Manufacturer9
RM-120.2 Resin Systems Required Test by Vessel Fabricator9
RD-620.1 Flange and Nozzle Dimensions for Hand Lay‐Up and Pressure Molded Flanges21
RD-1173.2 Values of Spherical Radius Factor Ko for Ellipsoidal Heads With Pressure on Convex Side37
RT-620.1 Evaluation Criteria90
2-100.1 Molecular Weights of Gases and Vapors108
6-100.1 Structural Laminate Visual Acceptance Criteria for Class I Pressure Vessels120
6-100.2 Structural Laminate Visual Acceptance Criteria for Class I Pressure Vessels122
7-100.1 Standard Units for Use in Equations124
8-300.4.1-1 Resin Systems: Required Certifications and Tests127
8-600.2.1-1 Visual Acceptance Criteria for FRP Laminate (U.S. Customary Units)130
8-600.2.1-2 Visual Acceptance Criteria for FRP Laminate (SI Units)131
8-700.2.1-1 Qualification Tests135
Guide for Completing Fabricator’s Data Report CPV-1142
AC-440.1175
AD-500 Assumed Lamina Elastic and Strength Properties178
AD-501 Transformed Modulus Components, 106 psi180
AD-506 Matrices for Illustrative Example183
AD-507.2 Off‐Axis Mechanical Strain185
AD-507.3 On‐Axis Mechanical Strain185
AD-510 Strain‐Space Envelope Coordinates189
Q-1 Latest Revision and Year Date of Forms Referenced in This Code203

TABLES ix

Guide for Completing Form RP-1227
Guide for Completing Form RP-2230
Guide for Completing Form RP-3233
Guide for Completing Form RP-4236
Guide for Completing Form RP-5238
CPV-1 Fabricator’s Data Report for Composite Reinforced Pressure Vessels (Class I)140
Used in the Fabrication of Composite Reinforced Pressure Vessels (Class I)143

FORMS CPV-2 Recommended Form for Qualifying the Laminate Design and the Laminate Procedure Specification

Q-106 Recommended Form for Qualifying the Vessel Design and the Procedure Specification Used in

Fabricating Bag-Molded and Centrifugally Cast Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels (Class I) 204

Fabricating Filament-Wound Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels (Class I)206

Q-107 Recommended Form for Qualifying the Vessel Design and the Procedure Specification Used in

Fabricating Contact-Molded, Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels (Class I)208

Q-108 Recommended Form for Qualifying the Vessel Design and the Procedure Specification Used in

Bonding of Parts of Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels (Class I)211
Q-120 Procedure Specification for Class I Vessels215
RP-1 Fabricator’s Data Report for Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels (Class I)225
RP-2 Fabricator’s Partial Data Report (Class I)228
RP-3 Fabricator’s Data Report for Class I Vessels231
RP-4 Fabricator’s Partial Data Report for Class I Vessels234
RP-5 Fabricator’s Data Report Supplementary Sheet237
ENDNOTES239

Q-115 Recommended Form for Qualifying the Design and the Procedure Specification Used in Adhesive x ð15Þ LIST OF SECTIONS SECTIONS I Rules for Construction of Power Boilers

I Materials • Part A — Ferrous Material Specifications

• Part B — Nonferrous Material Specifications

• Part C — Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals

• Part D — Properties (Customary)

• Part D — Properties (Metric)

I Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components • Subsection NCA — General Requirements for Division 1 and Division 2

• Appendices

• Division 1 – Subsection NB — Class 1 Components

– Subsection NC — Class 2 Components

– Subsection ND — Class 3 Components

– Subsection NE — Class MC Components

– Subsection NF — Supports

– Subsection NG — Core Support Structures

– Subsection NH — Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service* • Division 2 — Code for Concrete Containments

• Division 3 — Containments for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive

Material and Waste • Division 5 — High Temperature Reactors

IV Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers V Nondestructive Examination VI Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers VII Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers

VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels • Division 1

• Division 2 — Alternative Rules

• Division 3 — Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels

IX Welding, Brazing, and Fusing Qualifications X Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels XI Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components XII Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks

* The 2015 Edition of Section I is the last edition in which Section I, Division 1, Subsection NH, Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature

Service, will be published. The requirements located within Subsection NH have been moved to Section I, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B for the elevated temperature construction of Class A components.

Interpretations of the Code have historically been posted in January and July at http://cstools.asme.org/interpretations.cfm. Interpretations issued during the previous two calendar years are included with the publication of the applicable Section of the Code in the 2015 Edition. Interpretations of Section I, Divisions 1 and 2 and Section I Appendices are included with Subsection NCA.

Following the 2015 Edition, interpretations will not be included in editions; they will be issued in real time in ASME's

Interpretations Database at http://go.asme.org/Interpretations. Historical BPVC interpretations may also be found in the Database.

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code committees meet regularly to consider proposed additions and revisions to the

Code and to formulate Cases to clarify the intent of existing requirements or provide, when the need is urgent, rules for materials or constructions not covered by existing Code rules. Those Cases that have been adopted will appear in the appropriate 2015 Code Cases book: “Boilers and Pressure Vessels” or “Nuclear Components.” Supplements will be sent or made available automatically to the purchasers of the Code Cases books up to the publication of the 2017 Code.

xii

In 1911, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers established the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee to formulate standard rules for the construction of steam boilers and other pressure vessels. In 2009, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee was superseded by the following committees:

(a) Committee on Power Boilers (I) (b) Committee on Materials (I) (c) Committee on Construction of Nuclear Facility Components (I) (d) Committee on Heating Boilers (IV) (e) Committee on Nondestructive Examination (V) (f) Committee on Pressure Vessels (VIII) (g) Committee on Welding, Brazing, and Fusing (IX) (h) Committee on Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels (X) (i) Committee on Nuclear Inservice Inspection (XI) (j) Committee on Transport Tanks (XII) (k) Technical Oversight Management Committee (TOMC)

Where reference is made to “the Committee” in this Foreword, each of these committees is included individually and collectively.

The Committee ’sf unctioni st oe stablish ruleso fs afetyr elating only to pressure integrity, which govern the construction** of boilers, pressure vessels, transport tanks, and nuclear components, and the inservice inspection of nuclear components and transport tanks. The Committee also interprets these rules when questions arise regarding their intent. The technical consistency of the Sections of the Code and coordination of standards development activities of the Committees is supported and guided by the Technical Oversight Management Committee. This Code does not address other safety issues relating to the construction of boilers, pressure vessels, transport tanks, or nuclear components, or the inservice inspection of nuclear components or transport tanks. Users of the Code should refer to the pertinent codes, standards, laws, regulations, or other relevant documents for safety issues other than those relating to pressure integrity. Except for Sections XI and XII, and with a few other exceptions, the rules do not, of practical necessity, reflect the likelihood and consequences of deterioration in service related to specific service fluids or external operating environments. In formulating the rules, the Committee considers the needs of users, manufacturers, and inspectors of pressure vessels. The objective of the rules is to afford reasonably certain protection of life and property, and to provide a margin for deterioration in service to give a reasonably long, safe period of usefulness. Advancements in design and materials and evidence of experience have been recognized.

This Code contains mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions, and nonmandatory guidance for construction activities and inservice inspection and testing activities. The Code does not address all aspects of these activities and those aspects that are not specifically addressed should not be considered prohibited. The Code is not a handbook and cannot replace education, experience, and the use of engineering judgment. The phrase engineering judgement refers to technical judgments made by knowledgeable engineers experienced in the application of the Code. Engineering judgments must be consistent with Code philosophy, and such judgments must never be used to overrule mandatory requirements or specific prohibitions of the Code.

The Committee recognizes that tools and techniques used for design and analysis change as technology progresses and expects engineers to use good judgment in the application of these tools. The designer is responsible for complying with Code rules and demonstrating compliance with Code equations when such equations are mandatory. The Code neither requires nor prohibits the use of computers for the design or analysis of components constructed to the

* The information contained in this Foreword is not part of this American National Standard (ANS) and has not been processed in accordance with ANSI's requirements for an ANS. Therefore, this Foreword may contain material that has not been subjected to public review or a consensus process. In addition, it does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the Code.

** Construction, as used in this Foreword, is an all-inclusive term comprising materials, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing, certification, and pressure relief.

xiii requirements of the Code. However, designers and engineers using computer programs for design or analysis are cautioned that they are responsible for all technical assumptions inherent in the programs they use and the application of these programs to their design.

The rules established by the Committee are not to be interpreted as approving, recommending, or endorsing any proprietary or specific design, or as limiting in any way the manufacturer's freedom to choose any method of design or any form of construction that conforms to the Code rules.

The Committee meets regularly to consider revisions of the rules, new rules as dictated by technological development,

Code Cases, and requests for interpretations. Only the Committee has the authority to provide official interpretations of this Code. Requests for revisions, new rules, Code Cases, or interpretations shall be addressed to the Secretary in writing and shall give full particulars in order to receive consideration and action (see Submittal of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committees). Proposed revisions to the Code resulting from inquiries will be presented to the Committee for appropriate action. The action of the Committee becomes effective only after confirmation by ballot of the Committee and approval by ASME. Proposed revisions to the Code approved by the Committee are submitted to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and published at http://go.asme.org/BPVCPublicReview to invite comments from all interested persons. After public review and final approval by ASME, revisions are published at regular intervals in Editions of the Code.

The Committee does not rule on whether a component shall or shall not be constructed to the provisions of the Code.

The scope of each Section has been established to identify the components and parameters considered by the Committee in formulating the Code rules.

Questions or issues regarding compliance of a specific component with the Code rules are to be directed to the ASME

Certificate Holder (Manufacturer). Inquiries concerning the interpretation of the Code are to be directed to the Committee. ASME is to be notified should questions arise concerning improper use of an ASME Certification Mark.

(Parte 1 de 9)

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