Introduction to Thermal Systems...echanics, and Heat Transfer.rar - app

Introduction to Thermal Systems...echanics, and Heat Transfer.rar - app

TABLES FOR FLUID MECHANICS FM-1 Properties of Common Fluids 513

TABLES AND FIGURES FOR HEAT TRANSFER1 HT-1 Thermophysical Properties of Selected Technical Materials 514 HT-2 Thermophysical Properties of Selected Common Materials 516 HT-3 Thermophysical Properties of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure 518 HT-4 Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Liquids 519 HT-5 Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Water 520

HT-6 Mathematical Relations and Functions: Hyperbolic Functions, Gaussian Error Function, and Bessel Function of the First Kind

HT-7 Graphical Representation of One-Dimensional, Transient

Conduction in the Plane Wall, Infinite Cylinder, and Sphere (Heisler and Gröber Charts)

TABLES AND FIGURES FOR THERMODYNAMICS2

Tables SI E

T-1 Atomic or Molecular Weights and Critical Properties of Selected Elements and Compounds 521 521

T-2 Properties of Saturated Water (Liquid-Vapor): Temperature Table 522 538 T-3 Properties of Saturated Water (Liquid-Vapor): Pressure Table 523 540 T-4 Properties of Superheated Water Vapor 525 542 T-5 Properties of Compressed Liquid Water 528 547

T-6 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 134a (Liquid-Vapor): Temperature Table 529 548

T-7 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 134a (Liquid-Vapor): Pressure Table 530 549

1The convention used to present numerical values is illustrated by this example:

2The convention used to present numerical values of the specific volume of liquids in the SI tables is illustrated by this example:

Index to Property Tables and Figures

Tables T-12 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 2 (Liquid-Vapor): Temperature Table T-13 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 2 (Liquid-Vapor): Pressure Table T-14 Properties of Superheated Refrigerant 2 Vapor T-15 Properties of Saturated Ammonia (Liquid-Vapor): Temperature Table T-16 Properties of Saturated Ammonia (Liquid-Vapor): Pressure Table T-17 Properties of Superheated Ammonia Vapor T-18 Properties of Saturated Propane (Liquid-Vapor): Temperature Table T-19 Properties of Saturated Propane (Liquid-Vapor): Pressure Table T-20 Properties of Superheated Propane Vapor T-12E Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 2 (Liquid-Vapor): Temperature Table T-13E Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 2 (Liquid-Vapor): Pressure Table T-14E Properties of Superheated Refrigerant 2 Vapor T-15E Properties of Saturated Ammonia (Liquid-Vapor): Temperature Table T-16E Properties of Saturated Ammonia (Liquid-Vapor): Pressure Table T-17E Properties of Superheated Ammonia Vapor T-18E Properties of Saturated Propane (Liquid-Vapor): Temperature Table T-19E Properties of Saturated Propane (Liquid-Vapor): Pressure Table T-20E Properties of Superheated Propane Vapor

Figures

T-1 Generalized compressibility chart, pR 1.0

T-2 Generalized compressibility chart, pR 10.0

T-3 Generalized compressibility chart, 10 pR 40

T-4 Psychrometric chart for 1 atm

Table FM-1Properties of Common Fluids

(a)Approximate Physical Properties of Some Common Fluids (SI Units)

Specific Dynamic Kinematic

Temperature 

Liquids

Gases at Standard Atmospheric Pressure1

(b)Approximate Physical Properties of Some Common Fluids (Other Units)

Specific Dynamic Kinematic

Temperature 

Liquids

Gases at Standard Atmospheric Pressure1

1For gases at atmospheric pressure,the ideal gas model (Sec. 4.5) applies,and p RT.

Table HT-1Thermophysical Properties of Selected Technical Materials

Properties at Various Temperatures (K)

Properties at 300 Kk(W/mK) c p (J/kg K)

Melting

Composition (K) (kg/m 3 ) (J/kg K) (W/m K) (m 2

Metallic Solids

Aluminum

Copper

Iron

Nick el

Properties at Various Temperatures (K)

Properties at 300 Kk(W/mK) c p (J/kg K)

Melting

Composition (K) (kg/m 3 ) (J/kg K) (W/m K) (m 2

Nonmetallic solids

Table HT-2Thermophysical Properties of Selected Common Materials

Typical Properties at 300 K

Density, Thermal Specific

Conductivity, k Heat, cp Description/Composition (kg/m3) (W/m K) (J/kg K)

Insulating Materials and Systems

Blanket and Batt

Board and Slab

Loose Fill

Formed/Foamed-in-Place

Polyvinyl acetate cork mastic;—0.100— sprayed or troweled

Reflective

Aluminum foil separating fluffy400.00016— glass mats; 10–12 layers,evacuated; for cryogenic applications (150 K)

Structural Building Materials

Building Boards

Hardwoods (oak, maple) 720 0.16 1255 Softwoods (fir, pine) 510 0.12 1380

Masonry Materials

Table HT-2Thermophysical Properties of Selected Common Materials (Continued)

Density, Thermal Specific

Description/ Temperature Conductivity, k Heat, cp Composition (K) (kg/m3) (W/m K) (J/kg K)

Other Materials

Glass

Rubber, vulcanized

Tissue, human

Wood,cross grain

Wood, radial

Table HT-3Thermophysical Properties of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure1

Air

Helium (He)

1For gases at atmospheric pressure, the ideal gas model (Sec. 4.5) applies, and p RT.

Table HT-4Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Liquids Saturated Liquids

Engine Oil (Unused)

Table HT-5Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Water1

Specific Thermal Expansion

Heat Viscosity Conductivity Prandtl Coeffi- Tempera- (kJ/kg K) (N s/m2) (W/m K) Number cient,

1See Table T-2 for specific volume, vfand vg.

Table HT-6Mathematical Relations and Functions

Hyperbolic Functions1 xsinh xcosh xtanh xxsinh xcosh xtanh x

1The hyperbolic functions are defined as

The derivatives of the hyperbolic functions of the variable uare given as b du ex e x sinh x cosh x

Gaussian Error Function1 werf wwerf wwerf w

1The Gaussian error function is defined as

Bessel Function of the First Kind

HT-7Graphical Representation of One-Dimensional, Transient Conduction in the Plane Wall, Infinite Cylinder, and Sphere (Heisler and Gröber Charts)

In Secs. 16.5.2 and 16.5.3, one-term approximations have been developed for transient, onedimensional conduction in a plane wall (with symmetrical convection conditions) and radial systems (infinite cylinder and sphere). The results apply for Fo 0.2 and can conveniently be represented in graphical forms that illustrate the functional dependence of the transient temperature distribution on the Biot and Fourier numbers.

Results for the plane wall (Figure 16.25) are presented in Figures HT-7.1 to HT-7.3, which are commonly referred to as Heisler charts. Figure HT-7.1 can be used to obtain the midplane temperature of the wall,T(0,t) To(t),at any time during the transient process. If Tois known for particular values of Fo and Bi, Figure HT-7.2 can be used to determine the cor- responding temperature at any location off the midplane. Hence Figure HT-7.2 must be used in conjunction with Figure HT-7.1. For example, if one wishes to determine the surface tem- perature (x* 1) at some time t, Figure HT-7.1 would first be used to determine Toat t. Figure HT-7.2 would then be used to determine the surface temperature from knowledge of

To. The procedure would be inverted if the problem were one of determining the time required for the surface to reach a prescribed temperature.

Graphical results for the energy transferred from a plane wall over the time interval tare presented in Figure HT-7.3, which is commonly referred to as a Gröber chart. These results were generated from Eq. 16.110. The dimensionless energy transfer Q Qois expressed exclusively in terms of Foand Bi.

Results for the infinite cylinder are presented in Figures HT-7.4 to HT-7.6, and those for the sphere are presented in Figures HT-7.7 to HT-7.9, where the Biot number is defined in terms of the radius ro.

To –

Ti – T ∞

Figure HT-7.1Midplane temperature as a function of time for a plane wall of thickness 2L.

The foregoing charts also can be used to determine the transient response of a plane wall, an infinite cylinder,or a sphere subjected to a sudden change in surface temperature.For such a condition it is only necessary to replace T∞ by the prescribed surface temperature Ts and to set Bi 1equal to zero. In so doing,the convection coefficient is tacitly assumed to be infinite,in which case T∞ Ts.

To –

Figure HT-7.2Temperature distribution in a plane wall of thickness 2L.

QoBi = hL /k = 0.001 k2 = Bi2 Fo

Figure HT-7.3Internal energy change as a function of time for a plane wall of thickness 2L.

To –

Ti – T ∞

Figure HT-7.4Centerline temperature as a function of time for an infinite cylinder of radius ro.

Figure HT-7.5Temperature distribution in an infinite cylinder of radius ro.

To –

QoBi = hr o /k = 0.001 k2 = Bi2 Fo

Figure HT-7.6Internal energy change as a function of time for an infinite cylinder of radius ro.

To –

Ti – T ∞

Figure HT-7.7Center temperature as a function of time in a sphere of radius ro.

To –

Figure HT-7.9Internal energy change as a function of time for a sphere of radius ro.

Figure HT-7.8Temperature distribution in a sphere of radius ro.

QoBi = hr o /k = 0.001 k2 = Bi2 Fo

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